This article is about the modern country of Ghana. For the Ghana Empire (c. 300 – c. 1200) northwest of modern Ghana, see Ghana Empire. For other uses, see Ghana (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 8°N 2°W
Republic of Ghana
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: “Freedom and Justice”
God Bless Our Homeland Ghana
God Bless Our Homeland Ghana
Location of Ghana (dark green)
Location of Ghana (dark green)
Official languages English
Akuapem Twi, Asante Twi, Dagaare, Dagbani, Dangme, Ewe, Ga, Gonja, Kasem, Fante, Nzema, Wasa, Talensi, Frafra
Ethnic groups (2010)
47.5% Ashanti / Akan (11.5 mln)
16.6% Dagbani / Mole (4 mln)
13.9% Ewe (2.9 mln)
7.4% Ga-Adangbe (1.8 mln)
5.7% Gurma (0.7 mln)
3.7% Guan / Gonja (0.3 mln)
2.5% Gurunsi (0.1 mln)
1.1% Bissa / Mande (0.1 mln)
1.6% Other (0.1 mln)
Citizenship Ghanaian Passport
Government Unitary presidential
• President John Dramani Mahama
• Vice-President Kwesi Amissah-Arthur
Independence from the United Kingdom
• Declared 6 March 1957
• Realm 6 March 1957 – 1 July 1960
• Republic 1 July 1960
• Current constitution 28 April 1992
• Total 238,535 km2 (82nd)
92,099 sq mi
• Water (%) 4.61 (11,000 km2 / 4,247 mi2)
• 2014 estimate Increase 27,043,093 (45th)
• 2010 census 24.2 million
• Density 101.5/km2 (103rd)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total $121.074 billion (70th)
• Per capita $4,390 (126th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total $38.171 billion (69th)
• Per capita $1,384 (126th)
Gini (2006) 42.8
HDI (2014) Increase 0.579
medium · 140th
Currency Ghana cedi (GH₵) (GHS)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
Drives on the right
Calling code +233
ISO 3166 code GH
Internet TLD .gh
Republic of Ghana portal
Ghana (Listeni/ˈɡɑːnə/), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a sovereign unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2, Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. The word Ghana means “Warrior King” in the Soninke language.
The territory of present-day Ghana has been inhabited for millennia, with the first permanent state dating back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British ultimately establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana’s current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast. In 1957, it became the first sub-saharan African nation to declare independence from European colonisation.
A multicultural nation, Ghana has a population of approximately 27 million, spanning a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. Five percent of the population practices traditional faiths, 71.2% adhere to Christianity and 17.6% are Muslim. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical jungles. Ghana is a democratic country led by a president who is both head of state and head of the government. Ghana’s economy is one of the strongest and most diversified in Africa, following a quarter century of relative stability and good governance. Ghana’s growing economic prosperity and democratic political system has made it a regional power in West Africa. It is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Group of 24 (G24).
2.2 Medieval kingdoms
2.3 European contact (15th century)
2.4 Independence (1957)
2.5 Operation Cold Chop and aftermath
2.6 21st century
3 Historical timeline
5.1 Foreign relations
5.2 Law enforcement and Police
5.4 Administrative divisions
7.1 Key sectors
7.3 Petroleum and natural gas production
7.4 Industrial minerals mining
7.5 Real estate
7.6 Trade and exports
7.7 Electricity generation sector
7.8 Economic transparency
8 Science and technology
8.1 Innovations and HOPE City
8.2 Space and satellite programmes
8.3 Cybernetics and cyberwarfare
8.4 Health and biotechnology
9.3 Foreign students
9.4 Funding of education
9.5 Provision of educational material
9.6 Kindergarten and education structure
9.8 High school
10.2 Legal immigration
10.3 Illegal immigration
10.6 Fertility and reproductive health
11 Universal health care and health care provision
12.1 Food and drink
12.4 Traditional clothing
12.5 Modern clothing
12.6 Music and dance
12.10 Cultural heritage and architecture
13 National symbols
15 See also
17 Further reading
18 External links
1925 map of what was to become Ghana
The etymology of the word Ghana means “warrior king” and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, although this empire was further north than the modern-day country of Ghana in the region of Guinea.
The name “Ghana” was a possible source of the name “Guinea” (via French Guinoye) used to refer to the West African coast off Ghana (as in Gulf of Guinea).
Ghana was adopted as the legal name for the area comprising four separate parts, which immediately before independence enjoyed distinct constitutional positions:
the Colony of the Gold Coast;
the Colony of Ashanti;
the Protectorate of the Northern Territories; and
the Trust Territory of Togoland (under British administration).
The minister responsible for shepherding through the independence legislation Charles Arden-Clarke Lord Listowel explained that the name was chosen “in accordance with local wishes”.
Main article: History of Ghana
[icon] This section requires expansion. (January 2015)
Archaeological evidence suggests that humans have lived in present-day Ghana since the Bronze Age.
Main articles: Kingdom of Ashanti and Kingdom of Dagbon
16th – 17th century Akan Terracotta, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Ghana was already recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century.
Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories. This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, and the Mankessim Kingdom.
Until the 11th century, the majority of modern Ghana’s territorial area was largely unoccupied and uninhabited by humans. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were firmly settled by the 5th century BC. By the early 11th century, the Akans were firmly established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named.
From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana, mainly based on gold trading. These states included Bonoman (Brong-Ahafo Region), Ashanti (Ashanti Region), Denkyira (Central region), Mankessim Kingdom (Western region), and Akwamu Eastern region. By the 19th century; the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism.
A 1850 map showing the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti within the Guinea region and surrounding regions in West Africa.
The Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, and eventually as a centralised kingdom with an advanced, highly specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan Ashanti people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities then traded with the states of Africa.
The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagombas came on horse-backs from present day Burkina Faso under a single leader, Naa Gbewaa. With their advanced weapons and the presence of a central authority they easily invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba (land god priests), established themselves as rulers over them and made Gambaga their capital. The death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mamprugu, Mossi, Nanumba and Wala.
European contact (15th century)
Main articles: Gold Coast (region) and Ghana (Commonwealth realm)
Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade then established the Portuguese Gold Coast (Costa do Ouro), focused on the extensive availability of gold. The Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah (the perpetual drink) which they renamed Elmina.
In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d’Azambuja to build Elmina Castle, which was completed in three years. By 1598, the Dutch people had joined the Portuguese people in gold trading, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast (Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) and building forts at Komenda and Kormantsi. In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, and Axim in 1642 (Fort St Anthony).
Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedish people, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast (Svenska Guldkusten), and Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast (Danske Guldkyst or Dansk Guinea). Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast.
More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Swedish, Dano-Norwegians, Dutch and German merchants; the latter German people establishing the German Gold Coast (Brandenburger Gold Coast or Groß Friedrichsburg). In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states and the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times in the Anglo-Ashanti wars against the United Kingdom that lasted for 100 years, but eventually lost with the War of the Golden Stool in the early 1900s.
In 1947, the newly formed United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) by The Big Six called for “self-government within the shortest possible time” following the Gold Coast legislative election, 1946. Dr.h.c. Kwame Nkrumah is the first Prime Minister of Ghana and President of Ghana and formed the Convention People’s Party (CPP) with the motto “self-government now”.
The first Prime Minister of Ghana and President of Ghana Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah won a majority in the Gold Coast legislative election, 1951 for the Gold Coast Legislative Assembly in 1952, Nkrumah was appointed leader of the Gold Coast’s government business. The Gold Coast region declared independence from the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957 and established the nation of Ghana.
A postage stamp of Gold Coast overprinted for Ghanaian independence in 1957.
File:Ghana (1957-03-07 A New Nation).oggPlay media
The commencing chronicles of Ghana on 6 March 1957 and Kwame Nkrumah establishment of Ghanaian Republicanism, including Ghanaian presidential election, 1960.
On 6 March 1957 at 12 a.m Kwame Nkrumah declared Ghana’s establishment and autonomy as the first Prime Minister of Ghana and on 1 July 1960, following the Ghanaian constitutional referendum, 1960 and Ghanaian presidential election, 1960 Nkrumah declared Ghana as a republic as the first President of Ghana.
The flag of Ghana, consisting of the colours red, gold, green, and a black star, became the new flag in 1957 when Gold Coast gained its name Ghana. Designed by Theodosia Salome Okoh; the red represents the blood that was shed towards independence, the gold represents the industrial minerals wealth of Ghana, the green symbolises the rich grasslands of Ghana, and the black star is the symbol of the Ghanaian people and African emancipation.
Kwame Nkrumah, first Prime Minister of Ghana, and then President of Ghana, was the first African head of state to promote Pan-Africanism, an idea he came into contact with during his studies at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania in the United States, at the time when Marcus Garvey was becoming famous for his “Back to Africa Movement”. Nkrumah merged the teachings of Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the naturalised Ghanaian scholar W. E. B. Du Bois into the formation of 1960s Ghana.
Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, as he became known, played an instrumental part in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement, and in establishing the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute to teach his ideologies of communism and socialism. His life achievements were recognised by Ghanaians during his centenary birthday celebration, and the day was instituted as a public holiday in Ghana (Founder’s Day).
Operation Cold Chop and aftermath
Main article: History of Ghana (1966–79)
Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum with the statue of Osagyefo.
Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah and his government was subsequently overthrown by a GAF military operation codenamed “Operation Cold Chop” coup while Nkrumah was abroad with Zhou Enlai in the People’s Republic of China for a fruitless mission to Hanoi in Vietnam to help end the Vietnam War on 24 February 1966 by GAF led by Col. Emmanuel K. Kotoka. National Liberation Council (N.L.C.) formed and chaired by Lt. General Joseph A. Ankrah.
A series of alternating military and civilian governments from 1966 to 1981 ended with the ascension to power of Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings of the Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC) in 1981. These changes resulted in the suspension of the Constitution of Ghana in 1981, and the banning of political parties in Ghana. The economy suffered a severe decline soon after, Kwame Darko negotiated a structural adjustment plan changing many old economic policies, and economic growth soon recovered from the mid–2000s. A new Constitution of Ghana restoring multi-party system politics was promulgated in Ghanaian presidential election, 1992; Rawlings was elected as president of Ghana then, and again in Ghanaian general election, 1996.
Winning the 2000 Ghanaian elections, John Agyekum Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) was sworn into office as president of Ghana on 7 January 2001, and attained the presidency again in the 2004 Ghanaian elections, thus also serving two term of office term limit as president of Ghana and thus marking the first time under the fourth republic of Ghana that power had been transferred from one legitimately elected head of state and head of government to another.
Kufuor was succeeded to the presidency of the Republic of Ghana by John Atta Mills of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2008 and John Atta Mills was inaugurated as the third president of the fourth republic of Ghana and eleventh president of Ghana on 7 January 2009, prior to John Atta Mills being succeeded as president of Ghana by then vice-president of Ghana John Dramani Mahama on 24 July 2012.
Following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2012 John Dramani Mahama became supreme commander-in-chief, and he was inaugurated as the 4th President of the Fourth Republic of Ghana and 12th President of Ghana on 7 January 2013 to serve a one term of office of four-year term length as supreme commander-in-chief and president of Ghana until 7 January 2017, and securing Ghana’s status as a stable democracy.
Main article: Geography of Ghana
Ghana map of Köppen climate classification.
Ghana is located on the Gulf of Guinea, only a few degrees north of the Equator, therefore giving it a warm climate. Ghana spans an area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), and has an Atlantic coastline that stretches 560 kilometres (350 miles) on the Gulf of Guinea in Atlantic Ocean to its south. It lies between latitudes 4° and 12°N, and longitudes 4°W and 2°E; and the Prime Meridian passes through Ghana, specifically through the industrial port town of Tema. Ghana is geographically closer to the “centre” of the Earth than any other country in the World; even though the notional centre, (0°, 0°) is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) off the south-east coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea.
Grasslands mixed with south coastal shrublands and forests dominate Ghana, with forest extending northward from the south-west coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean 320 kilometres (200 miles) and eastward for a maximum of about 270 kilometres (170 miles) with the Kingdom of Ashanti or the southern part of Ghana being a primary location for mining of industrial minerals and timber.
Ghana encompasses plains, waterfalls, low hills, rivers, Lake Volta, the world’s largest artificial lake, Dodi Island and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana. The northernmost part of Ghana is Pulmakong and the southernmost part of Ghana is Cape Three Points.
Main article: Climate of Ghana
The climate of Ghana is tropical and there are two main seasons: the wet season and the dry season.
[hide]Climate data for Ghana
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31
Average high °C (°F) 27.5
Average low °C (°F) 23
Record low °C (°F) 15
Average rainfall mm (inches) 16
Average rainy days 2 2 5 7 11 14 7 6 8 9 4 2 77
Average relative humidity (%) 79 77 77 80 82 85 85 83 82 83 80 79 85
Mean monthly sunshine hours 214 204 223 213 211 144 142 155 171 220 240 235 2,372
Main article: Rivers of Ghana
Ghana has a vast river system with an array of tributaries.
Panorama and landscape view of Lake Volta in Volta Basin and Eastern Region of Ghana. Lake Volta by artificial surface area is the largest reservoir in the world. Lake Volta drains into the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. Volta River has three main tributaries—the Black Volta, White Volta and Red Volta.
Main articles: Wildlife of Ghana and National parks of Ghana
Ghana has an array of wildlife that can be seen at zoos and national parks in Ghana, although populations have been drastically reduced by habitat loss and poaching.
Main article: Government of Ghana
Further information: Politics of Ghana
Parliament House of Ghana seat of the Government of Ghana, the Supreme Court of Ghana and Judiciary of Ghana buildings, Osu Castle is the defacto residence of presidency and the Flagstaff House is the official residence and presidential palace. First President of the Republic of Ghana Nkrumah and Presidents of the 4th Republic of Ghana Rawlings; Kufuor; Mills and Mahama.
Ghana is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy with a parliamentary multi-party system and former alternating military occupation. Following alternating military and civilian governments in January 1993, the Ghana military government gave way to the Fourth Republic of Ghana after presidential elections and parliamentary elections in late 1992. The 1992 constitution of Ghana divides powers among a Commander-in-Chief of the Ghana Armed Forces (President of Ghana), parliament (Parliament of Ghana), cabinet (Ministers of the Ghanaian Government), council of state (Ghanaian Council of State), and an independent judiciary (Judiciary of Ghana). The Government of Ghana is elected by universal suffrage after every four years.
The Electoral Commission of Ghana announced that former Vice President of Ghana, John Dramani Mahama won the Ghana presidential election, 2012 on 7 December 2012 and John Dramani Mahama was sworn in, amidst announcement of electoral fraud, as the reigning President of Ghana on 7 January 2013 to serve a four-year term that expires on Saturday, 7 January 2017.
The 2012 Fragile States Index indicated that Ghana is ranked the 67th least fragile state in the world and the 5th least fragile state in Africa after Mauritius, 2nd Seychelles, 3rd Botswana, and 4th South Africa. Ghana ranked 112th out of 177 countries on the index. Ghana ranked as the 64th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in the world out of all 174 countries ranked and Ghana ranked as the 5th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. Ghana was ranked 7th in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African government, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.
Main article: Foreign relations of Ghana
Since independence, Ghana has been devoted to ideals of nonalignment and is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. Ghana favours international and regional political and economic co-operation, and is an active member of the United Nations and the African Union.
Ghana has a great relationship with the United States, all of the last three U.S presidents- Bill Clinton, George W Bush, and Barack Obama- have made diplomatic trips to Ghana. Many Ghanaian diplomats and politicians hold positions in international organisations. These include Ghanaian diplomat and former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, International Criminal Court Judge Akua Kuenyehia, former President Jerry John Rawlings and former President John Agyekum Kuffour who have both served as diplomats of the United Nations.
In September 2010, Ghana’s former President John Atta Mills visited China on an official visit. Mills and China’s former President Hu Jintao, marked the 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties between the two nations, at the Great Hall of the People on 20 September 2010. China reciprocated with an official visit in November 2011, by the Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China, Zhou Tienong who visited Ghana and met with Ghana’s President John Dramani Mahama.
The Islamic Republic of Iran and the 6th President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad met with the 12th President of Ghana, John Dramani Mahama on 16 April 2013 to hold discussions with President John Dramani Mahama on strengthening the Non-Aligned Movement and also co–chair a bilateral meeting between the two countries Ghana and Iran at the Ghanaian presidential palace Flagstaff House. Government of Ghana reciprocated with an official state visit on 5 August 2013, by the Vice-President of Ghana, Kwesi Amissah-Arthur whom met with the Vice-President of Iran, Eshaq Jahangiri on the basis of autarky and possible bilateral trade at the Islamic Republic of Iran’s presidential palace, Sa’dabad Palace.
Fokker F28 Fellowship of the President of Ghana arrives on State visit at the Beijing Capital International Airport in Beijing, People’s Republic of China
Diplomat Kofi Annan meeting with Vladimir Putin in Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.
Presidents John Kufuor of Ghana and Lula da Silva of Brazil meet in Accra.
Barack Obama and Michelle Obama, along with Malia Obama and Sasha Obama, participate in State Arrival Ceremony at Kotoka International Airport.
Diplomatic missions of Ghana.
Law enforcement and Police
Further information: Law enforcement in Ghana
Police Motorcycle Highway Patrol Unit of the Ghana Police Service.
Water Police Unit of the Ghana Police Service.
Militarized Police Unit of the Ghana Police Service in Mowag Piranhas and armoured fighting vehicles.
The Ghana Police Service (GPS) and the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) are the main law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Ghana and responsible for the detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and the maintenance of internal peace and security. The Ghana Police Service has eleven specialised police units including a Militarized Police Rapid deployment force (RDF) and Marine Police Unit (MPU). The Ghana Police Service operates in 12 divisions: ten covering the ten regions of Ghana, one assigned specifically to the seaport and industrial hub of Tema, and the twelfth being the Railways, Ports and Harbours Division. The Ghana Police Service’s Marine Police Unit and Division handles issues that arise from the country’s offshore oil and gas industry.
The Ghana Prisons Service and the sub-division Borstal Institute for Juveniles administers incarceration in Ghana. Ghana retains and exercises the death penalty for treason, corruption, robbery, piracy, drug trafficking, rape, and homicide. 27 convicts (all men) were sentenced to death in Ghana in 2012 and the Ghana Prisons Service statistics of the total number of convicts sentenced to death in Ghana as at December 2012 was 162 men and 4 women, with a total prison inmate population of 13,983 convicts as at 22 July 2013. “The new sustainable development goals adopted by the United Nations call for the international community to come together to promote the rule of law; support equal access to justice for all; reduce corruption; and develop effective, accountable, and transparent institutions at all levels.”
Ghanaian Drug War and The Narcotic Control Board
Ghana is among the sovereign states of West Africa used by drug cartels and drug traffickers (shown in orange).
Ghana is used as a key narcotics industry transshipment point by traffickers, usually from South America as well as some from other African nations. “West Africa is completely weak in terms of border control and the big drug cartels from Colombia and Latin America have chosen Africa as a way to reach Europe.” 
There is not a wide or popular knowledge about the narcotics industry and intercepted narcotics within Ghana itself, due to the industry’s operations and involvement in the underground economy. The social context within which narcotic trafficking, storage, transportation, and repacking systems exist in Ghana and the state’s location along the Gulf of Guinea within the Atlantic Ocean – only a few degrees north of the Equator – makes Ghana an attractive country for the narcotics business.
The Narcotic Control Board (NACOB), in collaboration with an internal counterpart, has impounded container ships at the Sekondi Naval Base within the Takoradi Harbour. These ships were carrying thousands of kilograms of cocaine, with a street value running into billions of Ghana cedis. However, drug seizures saw a decline in 2011.
Drug cartels are using new methods in narcotics production and narcotics exportation, to avoid Ghanaian security agencies. Underdeveloped institutions, porous open borders, and the existence of established smuggling organisations contribute to Ghana’s position in the narcotics industry. John Atta Mills, president between 2009 and 2012, initiated ongoing efforts to reduce the role of airports in Ghana’s drug trade.
Main article: Ghana Armed Forces
Ghana Air Force Special Forces Elite Light infantry clears an area on a flight line before takeoff on Mil Mi-17 Military Transport Helicopter.
Ghana Air Force Commando Harbin Z-9EH Medium Multi-Purpose Military Utility Helicopter.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan inspects Honor Guards mounted by the Ghana Air Force at the Flagstaff House the Presidential Palace of Ghana in Greater Accra on 1st March 2016.
In 1957, the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) consisted of its headquarters, support services, three battalions of infantry and a reconnaissance squadron with armoured vehicles. Ghanaian Prime Minister and President Kwame Nkrumah aimed at rapidly expanding the GAF to support the United States of Africa ambitions. Thus in 1961, 4th and 5th Battalions were established, and in 1964 6th Battalion was established, from a parachute airborne unit originally raised in 1963.
Today, Ghana is a regional power and regional hegemon. In his book Shake Hands with the Devil, Canadian Forces commander Roméo Dallaire highly rated the GAF soldiers and military personnel.
The military operations and military doctrine of the GAF are conceptualised on the Constitution of Ghana, Ghana’s Law on Armed Force Military Strategy, and Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) agreements to which GAF is attestator. GAF military operations are executed under the auspices and imperium of the Ministry of Defense (MoD) Minister for Defence.
Weapons of mass destruction and tactical nuclear weapons
See also: Border Guard Unit and Bureau of National Investigations
Cockpit of Ghana Air Force Paratrooper Rapid Deployment Airborne Forces CASA C-295 Military Transport Aircraft.
Ghana Air Force Paratrooper Rapid Deployment Airborne Forces CASA C-295 Military Transport Aircraft at the Takoradi Military Airbase.
Wing of a CASA C-295 Military Transport Aircraft of the Ghana Air Force Paratrooper Rapid Deployment Airborne Forces.
Nose of a Ghana Air Force Paratrooper Rapid Deployment Airborne Forces CASA C-295 Military Transport Aircraft.
Ghana adheres to a common credo ethos of the IAEA. The Ghana atomic agency currently holds no intent for the production of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Although Ghana has no military use of its nuclear assets, options for scientific research into modern nuclear propelled submarine and aircraft carrier ships, design and development of same technology and its transfer from partner OECD for its military use are imminent. Ghana currently has a prototype nuclear power plant and is opened to nuclear investors for the development of high tech nuclear power plants for a West Africa Electric Power Pool project. Although fragments of anti-nuclear power groups might critique nuclear proliferation, Ghana remains the safest and most trustworthy country in sub-Saharan Africa to pioneer it. Some people state that Ghana maintains several research reactors ready on standby for the processing of highly enriched uranium (HEU) into tactical nuclear weapons (TNW). In an article entitled “We’re still vulnerable”, renowned political scientist, bioterrorism and nuclear weapons specialist Graham T. Allison for the Boston Globe, speculates that Ghana’s orphaned research reactor (at Kwabenya, Greater Accra) contains highly enriched uranium (HEU) sufficient enough to make a number of nuclear weapons.
Main article: Administrative divisions of Ghana
Ghana is divided into 10 administrative regions, sub-divided into 275 districts:
Regions of Ghana Area (km2) Regional capitals
Ashanti Region 24,389 Kumasi
A clickable map of Ghana exhibiting its ten regions.
About this image
Ghana regional map
Ghana topography−topographic map
Ghana satellite image from outer space
Brong-Ahafo Region 39,557 Sunyani
Central Region 9,826 Cape Coast
Eastern Region 19,323 Koforidua
Greater Accra Region 3,245 Accra
Northern Region 70,384 Tamale
Upper East Region 8,842 Bolgatanga
Upper West Region 18,476 Wa
Volta Region 20,570 Ho
Western Region 23,941 Sekondi-Takoradi
Main article: Transport in Ghana
Transport and modes of transport in Ghana is accomplished by road transport (bus-based mass transit system), railway, air transport (civil aviation) and water transport (ferry).
Main articles: Economy of Ghana, New media in Ghana, and Automobile manufacturing in Ghana
Economy of Ghana Vision 2020 logo: Ghana to become a developed country from the years 2020–2029 then Ghana immediately become a newly industrialised country from the years 2030–2039 onwards.
Ghana is an average natural resource enriched country possessing industrial minerals, hydrocarbons and precious metals. It is an emerging designated digital economy with mixed economy hybridisation and an emerging market with 8.7% GDP growth in 2012. It has an economic plan target known as the “Ghana Vision 2020”. This plan envisions Ghana as the first African country to become a developed country between 2020 and 2029 and a newly industrialised country between 2030 and 2039. This excludes fellow Group of 24 member and Sub-Saharan African country South Africa, which is a newly industrialised country. The economy of Ghana also has ties to the Chinese yuan renminbi along with Ghana’s vast gold reserves. In 2013, the Bank of Ghana began circulating the renminbi throughout Ghanaian state-owned banks and to the Ghana public as hard currency along with the national Ghana cedi for second national trade currency.
The state-owned Volta River Authority and Ghana National Petroleum Corporation are the two major electricity producers. The Akosombo Dam, built on the Volta River in 1965, along with Bui Dam, Kpong Dam, and several other hydroelectric dams provide hydropower. In addition, the Government of Ghana has sought to build the second nuclear power plant in Africa.
The Stock exchange of Ghana (Ghana Stock Exchange) is the 5th largest on continental Africa and 3rd largest in sub-saharan Africa with a market capitalisation of GH¢ 57.2 billion or CN¥ 180.4 billion in 2012 with the South Africa JSE Limited as first. The Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) was the 2nd best performing stock exchange in sub-saharan Africa in 2013.
Ghana also produces high quality cocoa, is the 2nd largest producer of cocoa globally, and is projected to become the largest producer of cocoa in the world in 2015.
Ghana is classified as a middle income country. Services account for 50% of GDP, followed by manufacturing (24.1%), extractive industries (5%), and taxes (20.9%).
The Ghana economy is an emerging digital-based mixed economy hybrid similarly to that of Taiwan with an increasing primary manufacturing and exportation of digital technology goods along with assembling and exporting automobiles and ships, diverse resource rich exportation of industrial minerals, agricultural products primarily cocoa, petroleum and natural gas, and industries such as information and communications technology primarily via Ghana’s state digital technology corporation Rlg Communications which manufactures tablet computers with smart phones and various consumer electronics.
Petroleum and natural gas production
Ghana produces and exports an abundance of hydrocarbons such as sweet crude oil and natural gas. The 100% state-owned filling station company of Ghana, Ghana Oil Company (GOIL) is the number 1 petroleum and gas filling station of Ghana and the 100% state-owned state oil company Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) administrates hydrocarbon exploration and production of Ghana’s entire petroleum and natural gas reserves and Ghana aims to further increase output of oil to 2.2 million barrels (350,000 m3) per day and gas to 34,000,000 cubic metres (1.2×109 cu ft) per day.
Ghana’s Jubilee Oilfield which contains up to 3 billion barrels (480,000,000 m3) of sweet crude oil was discovered in 2007, among the many other offshore and inland oilfields in Ghana. Ghana is believed to have up to 5 billion barrels (790,000,000 m3) to 7 billion barrels (1.1×109 m3) of petroleum in reserves, which is the fifth largest in Africa and the 21st to 25th largest proven reserves in the world. It also has up to 1.7×1011 cubic metres (6×1012 cu ft) of natural gas in reserves, which is the sixth largest in Africa and the 49th largest natural gas proven reserves in the world. Oil and gas exploration off Ghana’s eastern coast on the Gulf of Guinea is ongoing, and the amount of both crude oil and natural gas continues to increase. The Government of Ghana has drawn up plans to nationalise Ghana’s entire petroleum and natural gas reserves to increase government revenue.
Industrial minerals mining
Known for its industrial minerals, Ghana is the world’s 7th largest producer of gold; producing over 102 metric tons of gold and the 10th largest producer of gold in the world in 2012; producing 89 metric tons of gold and Ghana is the designated 2nd largest producer of gold on the Africa continent behind the designated first South Africa. Ghana has the 9th largest reserves of diamonds in the world and Ghana is the 9th largest producer of diamonds in the world with Brazil having the 10th largest reserves of diamonds in the world and being the 10th largest producer of diamonds in the world. Industrial minerals and exports from South Ghana are gold, silver, timber, diamonds, bauxite, and manganese; South Ghana also has a great deposit of barites; basalts; clays; dolomites; feldspars; granites; gravels; gypsums; iron ores; kaolins; laterites; limestones; magnesites; marbles; micas; phosphates; phosphorus; rocks; salts; sands; sandstones; silver; slates; talcs; and uranium that are yet to be fully exploited. The Government of Ghana has drawn up plans to nationalise Ghana’s entire mining industry to increase government revenues.
A middle-class luxury villa house with swimming pool development in East Ridge
The real estate and housing market of Ghana has become an important and strategic economic sector, particularly in the urban centres of south Ghana such as Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tema. Kumasi is growing at a faster rate than Accra, and there is less competition in its real estate market. The gross rental income tax of Ghana is withheld at 10%, capital gains are taxed at 15% with a 5% gift tax imposed on the transfer of properties and Ghana’s real estate market is divided into 3 areas: public sector real estate development, emerging private sector real estate development, and private individuals. The activities of these 3 groups are facilitated by the Ghanaian banks and the primary mortgage market which has demonstrated enormous growth potential. Recent developments in the Ghanaian economy has given birth to a boom in the construction sector, including the housing and public housing sector generating and injecting billions of dollars annually into the Ghanaian economy. The real estate market investment perspective and attraction comes from Ghana’s tropical location and robust political stability. An increasing number of the Ghanaian populace are investing in properties and the Ghana government is empowering the private sector in the real estate direction.
Trade and exports
Ghana Export Treemap by Product (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity
■ 1st image: Container ships and Merchant ships being loaded and unloaded at Intermodal freight transport of Tema Harbour.
■ 2nd image: The Takoradi Harbour seaport was established in 1928 and is Ghana’s main export outlet. Ghana maintains one of the worlds fastest growing and expanding shipping industry.
In July 2013, International Enterprise Singapore opened its 38th global office in Accra, Ghana to develop trade and investment on logistics, oil and gas, aviation, transportation and consumer sectors. Singapore and Ghana also signed four bilateral agreements to promote public sector and private sector collaboration, as Ghana aims to predominantly shift its economic trade partnership to East Asia and Southeast Asia. The economic centre is IE Singapore’s second office in Africa, coming six months after opening in Johannesburg, South Africa in January 2013. Ghana’s labour force in 2008 totalled 11.5 million Ghanaian citizens. Tema Harbour is Africa’s largest manmade harbour and Takoradi Harbour along with Tema harbour in Ghana handles goods and exports for Ghana, they are also a traffic junctions, where goods are transhipped, the Tema harbour handles the majority of the nation’s export cargo and most of the country’s chief exports is shipped from Takoradi harbour. The Takoradi harbour and Tema harbour are operated by the state-owned Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority.
Electricity generation sector
Main article: Electricity sector in Ghana
Shortages of electricity have led to dumsor, increasing the interest in renewables. Ghana plans to become a major regional exporter of electrical power using oil from the Jubilee oil field.
According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index of 2013, out of 177 countries, Ghana ranked 63rd with Cuba and Saudi Arabia. Ghana had a score of 46 on a scale where a 0–9 score means highly corrupt, and a 90–100 score means very clean. This was based on perceived levels of public sector corruption. Previously in 2012, the country ranked 64 and scored 45. Thus, Ghana’s public sector scored lower in 2013 than in 2012, according to CPI’s scores.
Local reports have claimed that Ghana loses US$4.5 billion every year (annually) from nominal gross domestic product (Nominal GDP) growth as a result of economic corruption and economic crime by the incumbent National Democratic Congress (NDC) government of Ghana led by John Dramani Mahama. It is also said Ghana has lost an additional US$2.5 billion from nominal gross domestic product (Nominal GDP) growth between the months of January 2013 to October 2013 through economic corrupt practices under the Mahama administration.
The incumbent president is however seen to be fighting corruption by some government members, and a fellow politician of an opposition party, after ordering investigations into scandals. Nonetheless others believe his actions aren’t satisfactory in some cases.
Science and technology
Ghana was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to launch a cellular mobile network in 1992. It was also one of the first countries in Africa to be connected to the internet and to introduce ADSL broadband services.
Innovations and HOPE City
Hope City is a technology park to be built and based in Ghana. Hope City is being undertaken by Ghanaian information and communications technology company Rlg Communications. Hope City is an acronym for Home, Office, People and Environment. The Hope City project is expected to be completed in 2016 and is estimated to cost $US 10 billion in construction; and one of its towers will become Africa’s tallest building. Hope City will host a cluster of buildings and telecommunications facilities to serve as an information and communications technology park.
Space and satellite programmes
The Ghana Space Science and Technology Centre (GSSTC) and Ghana Space Agency (GhsA) oversees the space exploration and space programmes of Ghana and GSSTC and GhsA officials are to have a national security observational satellite launched into orbit in 2015. The first practical step in its endeavor was a CanSat launched on 15 May 2013, a space programme spearheaded by the All Nations University College (ANUC) in Koforidua. The CanSat was deployed 200 m high from a helium-filled balloon and took some aerial images as well as temperature readings. As its next step in advancing space science and satellite technology in the sub-region, an amateur ground station has been designed and built by the university. It has successfully tracked and communicated with several amateur radio satellites in orbit including the International Space Station, receiving slow-scan TV images on 18 and 20 December 2014. The miniaturized earth observational satellite is to be launched into orbit in 2017.
Ghana’s annual space exploration expenditure has been 1% of its gross domestic product (GDP) for support research in science and technology and in 2012 Ghana was elected to chairman the Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South (Comsats) and Ghana has a joint effort in space exploration with South Africa’s South African National Space Agency (SANSA).
Cybernetics and cyberwarfare
See also: Sakawa
Ghana education system’s implementation of information and communications technology at the University of Ghana.
The use of computer technology for teaching and learning began to receive government of Ghana’s attention from the late 1990s. The information and communications technology in education policy of Ghana requires the use of information and communications technology for teaching and learning at all levels of the education of Ghana system. The Ministry of Education (MOE) supports institutions in teaching of information and communications technology literacy. Majority of secondary, and some basic schools of Ghana have computer laboratories.
Ghana’s intention of becoming the information technology hub of West Africa has led the government of Ghana to enact cyber crime legislation and enhance cyber security practices. Acting on that goal, in 2008 Ghana passed the Electronic Communications Act and the Electronic Transactions Act, which established the legal framework for governing information technology. In November 2011, the Deputy Minister for Communications and Technology announced the development of a national cyber security strategy, aimed at combating cyber crime and securing critical infrastructure.
In June 2012, the National Information Technology Agency (NITA) announced a national computer emergency response team “strategy” designed to co-ordinate government response to cyberattacks, both internal and external. The Agency also establish computer emergency response teams for each municipal, metropolitan, and district assembly to improve co-ordination and information-sharing on cyberspace threats. Ghana is ranked 2nd on continental Africa and 7th globally in cyber warfare, cyberterrorism, cyber crime, and internet crime.
Health and biotechnology
The Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine is an agency of the Ministry of Health that was set up in the 1970s for both R&D and as a practical resource (product production & distribution/provision) primarily in areas of biotechnology related to medicinal plants. This includes both herbal medicine and work on more advanced applications. It also has a secondary role as an educational resource for foreign students in health, biotechnology and related fields.
Main article: Education in Ghana
Ghanaian Education system is divided in three parts: “Basic Education”, secondary cycle and tertiary education. “Basic Education” lasts 11 years (ages 4‒15). It is divided into Kindergarten (2 years), Primary School (2 module of 3 years) and Junior High (3 years). Junior High School (JHS) ends with the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE). Once the BECE achieved, the pupil can pursue into secondary cycle. Hence, the pupil has the choice between general education (assumed by Senior High School) and vocational education (assumed by technical Senior High School, Technical and Vocational Institutes, completed by a massive private and informal offer). Senior High School lasts three years and ends on the West African Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE). The WASSCE is needed to join a university bachelor’s degree programme. Polytechnics are opened to vocational students, from SHS or from TVI.
A Bachelor’s degree usually lasts 4 years, can be followed by a 1- or 2-year master’s degree, which can be concluded in 3 years by a Ph.D. A polytechnic lasts 2 or 3 years. Ghana also possesses numerous colleges of education. The Ghanaian education system from Kindergarten up to an undergraduate degree level takes 20 years.
The academic year usually goes from August to May inclusive. The school year in primary education lasts 40 weeks in Primary School and SHS, and 45 weeks in JHS.
Ratio of females to males in education system.
Females and males out of education system.
With over 95% of its children in school, Ghana currently has one of the highest school enrollment rates in all of Africa. The ratio of females to males in the total education system was 0.98, in 2014.
Ghana’s education system annually attracts a large number of foreign students particularly in the university sector. One noted product of the Ghana education system is Robert Mugabe who completed both his elementary school education and high school education at the prestigious Achimota School.
Funding of education
The government largely funds basic education comprising public primary schools and public junior high schools. Senior high schools are highly subsidised by the government. At the higher education level, the government funds more than 80% of resources provided to public universities, polytechnics and teacher training colleges.
Provision of educational material
As part of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education, Fcube, the government supplies all basic education schools with all their textbooks and other educational supplies like exercise books. Senior high schools are also provided with all their textbook requirement by the government. Private schools acquire their educational material from private suppliers. Ghana has the largest bookshop in Africa, EPP Books Services located at the University of Ghana.
Kindergarten and education structure
Education structure of Ghana
The female and male ages 15–24 years literacy rate in Ghana was 81% in 2010, with males at 82%, and females at 80%.
Ghanaian children begin their education at the age of three or four starting from kindergarten (nursery school and preschool), then to elementary school (primary school), high school (junior high school and senior high school) and finally university. The average age at which a Ghanaian child enters primary school is 6 years.
Ghana has a free education 6-year primary school education system beginning at age six, and, under the educational reforms implemented in 1987 and reformed in 2007, they pass on to a 3-year junior high school system. At the end of the third year of junior high, there is a mandatory “Basic Education Certificate Examination”. Those continuing must complete the 4-year senior high school programme (which has been changed to three years) and take an admission exam to enter any university or tertiary programme. The Ghanaian education system from nursery school up to an undergraduate degree level takes 20 years.
In 2005, Ghana had 12,130 primary schools, 5,450 junior secondary schools, 503 senior secondary schools, 21 public training colleges, 18 technical institutions, two diploma-awarding institutions and 6 universities.
In 2010, there were relatively more females (53.0%) than males (40.5%) with Primary school and JSS (Junior Secondary School) / JHS (Junior High School) as their highest level of education.
The Ghanaian Ministry of Education and the Ghanaian National Accreditation Board provide Free education at Elementary school (Primary school Education) level, and most Ghanaians have relatively easy access to High school Education (Junior high school Education and Senior high school Education). These numbers can be contrasted with the single university and handful of secondary and primary schools that existed at the time of independence in 1957. Ghana’s spending on education has varied between 28–40% of its annual budget in the past decade. All teaching is done in English, mostly by qualified Ghanaian educators.
The courses taught at the primary or basic school level include English, Ghanaian language and culture, mathematics, environmental studies, social studies, Mandarin and French as an OIF associated-member; as further languages are added, integrated or general science, pre-vocational skills and pre-technical skills, religious and moral education, and physical activities such as Ghanaian music and dance, and physical education.
Further information: List of senior secondary schools in Ghana
The senior high level school curriculum has core subjects and elective subjects of which students must take four the core subjects of English language, mathematics, integrated science (including science, agriculture and environmental studies) and social studies (economics, geography, history and government).
The high school students also choose 4 elective subjects from 5 available programmes: agriculture programme, general programme (arts or science option), business programme, vocational programme and technical programme. Apart from most primary and secondary schools which choose the Ghanaian system of schooling, there are also international schools such as the Takoradi International School, Tema International School, Galaxy International School, The Roman Ridge School, Lincoln Community School, Faith Montessori School, American International School, Association International School, New Nation School, SOS Hermann Gmeiner International College, North Legon Little Campus and International Community School, which offer the International Baccalaureat, Advanced Level General Certificate of Education and the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE).
Further information: List of universities in Ghana
Front view of the University of Education, Winneba (UEW) North Campus in Winneba.
Ghanaian college students at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Kumasi, February 2011.
Main entrance to the University of Ghana’s Balme Library in Accra.
There are eight national public universities in Ghana — the University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University of Cape Coast, University of Education, University for Development Studies, University of Mines and Technology, University of Professional Studies, Accra, University of Energy and Natural Resources, and University of Health and Allied Sciences.
Ghana has a growing number of accredited private universities including Ghana Technology University College, Ashesi University College, Methodist University College Ghana, Central University College, Accra Institute of Technology, Regent University College of Science and Technology, Valley View University and Zenith University College.
The oldest university in Ghana, the University of Ghana, was founded in 1948. It had 29,754 students in 2008. Its programmes in the arts, humanities, business, and the social sciences, as well as medicine are among of the best in the country. Many top universities — including Harvard University, Cornell University, and Oxford University — have special study abroad programmes with Ghanaian schools and provide their students the opportunity to study abroad at Ghanaian universities. New York University has a campus in Accra.
The University of Ghana has seen a shift of its traditionally best students to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Since Ghana’s independence, the country has been one of the most educational in sub-Saharan Africa. Former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan has been chancellor of the University of Ghana since 2008.
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, the second university to be established in the country, is the premier university of science and technology in Ghana and West Africa.
Main article: Demographics of Ghana
Further information: Ghanaian people
The vast majority of Ghana’s population — 98% percent — are Black Africans Ghana is a multiethnic country. The largest ethnic group is the Ashanti people. Ghana’s territorial area within West Africa was unoccupied and uninhabited by humans until the 10th century BC. By the 10th century AD. The Guans were the first settlers in Ghana long before the other tribes came. (Akans) had established Bonoman (Brong Ahafo region) and were joined by the current settlers and inhabitants in the 16th century.
In 2010 the inhabiting population of Ghana was 71.2% Christian (28.3% are Pentecostal, 18.4% Protestant, 13.1% Catholic and 11.4% other). Approximately 17.6% of the inhabiting population of Ghana were Muslims, (51% Sunni, 16% Ahmadiyya, and 8% Shia).
As of the year 2014, there are 375,000 registered legal skilled workers (permanent residents) or foreign workers/students (i.e. Ghana Card holders) inhabitants with an annually 1.5 million transited airport layovers. In its first post-colonial census in 1960, Ghana had a population of 6.7 million. The median age of Ghanaian citizens is 30 years old and the average household size is 3.6 persons. The Government of Ghana states that the official language of Ghana is English, and is spoken by 67.1% of the inhabiting population of Ghana.
Main articles: Ghana Immigration Service and Ghanaian nationality law
Ghana Card (Ghanaian electronic ID Card) – obverse (with chip EPassport logo.svg).
Contemporary Ghanaian Biometric Passport (with chip EPassport logo.svg).
Multiple Citizenship with Ghanaian Biometric Passport Identity Document.
In 2010, most of the 24.2 million inhabitants were predominantly citizens of the Ashanti (Akan) territories or Ashantiland (Kingdom of Ashanti) (4.7 million in Ashanti, 2.3 million in Brong-Ahafo, 2.2 million in Central, 2.6 million in Eastern, 2.3 million in Western, and 4 million in the seat of government in Greater Accra geographically and legally part of Eastern then administered separately on 23 July 1982). As of 2010, 4.1 million persons reside in the Dagbani territories or Kingdom of Dagbon (2.4 million in Northern, 1 million in Upper East, and 0.7 million in Upper West).
As of 2010, 2.1 million persons reside in Ewe territory Volta.
Main article: Immigration to Ghana
Due to recent legal immigration of skilled workers who possess Ghana Cards, there is a small population of Chinese, Malaysian, Indian, Middle Eastern and European nationals.
Main article: Illegal immigration in Ghana
In 2010, the Ghana Immigration Service reported that there was a large number of economic migrants and Illegal immigrants inhabiting Ghana 14.6% (or 3.1 million) of Ghana’s 2010 population (predominantly Nigerians, Burkinabe citizens, Togolese citizens, and Malian citizens). In 1969, under the “Ghana Aliens Compliance Order” (GACO) enacted by the Prime Minister of Ghana Kofi Abrefa Busia; Government of Ghana with BGU (Border Guard Unit) deported over 3 million aliens and illegal immigrants in 3 months as they made up 20% of the inhabiting population at the time. In 2013, there was a mass deportation of illegal miners, more than 4,000 of whom were Chinese nationals.
Main article: Languages of Ghana
Ashanti greeting phrases; “akɔaba” (welcome) and “ɛte sɛn” (how is it?) in Ashanti Twi.
There are eleven languages that have the status of government-sponsored languages: four are Akan ethnic languages (Asante Twi, Akuapem Twi, Mfantse and Nzema), two are Mole-Dagbani ethnic languages (Dagaare and Dagbanli). The rest are Ewe, Dangme, Ga, Gonja, and Kasem.
English is the language of the state and is widely used as a lingua franca.
Main article: Religion in Ghana
Religious affiliation in Ghana Affiliation 2000 census 2010 census
Christian 54.8% 56.2%
Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1% 28.3%
Protestant 18.6% 18.4%
Catholic 15.1% 13.1%
Other 11% 11.4%
Muslim 29.5% 32.8%
Traditional 6.5% 9%
None 3.1% 2.8%
Other 0.7% 0.8%
Ghana is a largely Christian country, although a sizable Muslim minority exists. Traditional (indigenous) beliefs are also practiced.
Fertility and reproductive health
Fertility rate of Ghana declined from 3.99 (2000) to 3.28 (2010) with 2.78 in urban region and 3.94 in rural region.
As of 2010, the maternal mortality rate was 350 deaths/100,000 live births, and the infant mortality rate was 38.52 deaths/1,000 live births.
According to a 2013 UNICEF report, 4% of women in Ghana have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM). The practice has been made illegal in the country. Ghana is also the birth country of anti-FGM campaigner Efua Dorkenoo.
Universal health care and health care provision
Main articles: NHIS and Health in Ghana
Further information: Eye care in Ghana and Optometry in Ghana
Ghana has a universal health care system strictly designated for Ghanaian nationals, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Health care is very variable throughout Ghana and in 2012, over 12 million Ghanaian nationals were covered by the National Health Insurance Scheme (Ghana) (NHIS). Urban centres are well served, and contain most of the hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies in Ghana. There are over 200 hospitals in Ghana and Ghana is a destination for medical tourism.
In 2013, life expectancy at birth had increased to an average of 66 years with males at 66 years and females at 67 years, and in 2013 infant mortality decreased to 39 per 1,000 live births. There was an estimation of 15 physicians and 93 nurses per 100,000 persons in 2010. 5.2% of Ghana’s GDP was spent on health in 2010, and all Ghanaian citizens have the right to access primary health care.
As of 2012, the HIV/AIDS prevalence was estimated at 1.40% among adults aged 15–49.
Main article: Culture of Ghana
Ghanaian culture is a diverse mixture of the practices and beliefs of many different Ghanaian ethnic groups.
Food and drink
Main article: Ghanaian cuisine
Ghanaian cuisine and gastronomy is diverse, and includes an assortment of soups and stews with varied seafoods and most Ghanaian soups are prepared with vegetables, meat, poultry or fish. Fish is important in the Ghanaian diet with tilapia, roasted and fried whitebait, smoked fish and crayfish all being common components of Ghanaian dishes.
Banku is a common Ghanaian starchy food made from ground corn (maize), and cornmeal based staples, dokonu (kenkey) and banku are usually accompanied by some form of fried fish (chinam) or grilled tilapia and a very spicy condiment made from raw red and green chillies, onions and tomatoes (pepper sauce). Banku and tilapia is a combo served in most Ghanaian restaurants. Fufu is the most common exported Ghanaian dish in that it is a delicacy across the African diaspora.
The Ghanaian national literature radio programme and accompanying publication Voices of Ghana was one of the earliest on the African continent. The most prominent Ghanaian authors are novelists; J. E. Casely Hayford, Ayi Kwei Armah and Nii Ayikwei Parkes, who gained international acclaim with the books, Ethiopia Unbound (1911), The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968) and Tail of the Blue Bird (2009), respectively. In addition to novels, other literature arts such as Ghanaian theatre and poetry have also had a very good development and support at the national level with prominent Ghanaian playwrights and poets Joe de Graft and Efua Sutherland.
Main article: Adinkra
Adinkra symbols by Robert Sutherland Rattray.
During the 13th century, Ghanaians developed their unique art of adinkra printing. Hand-printed and hand-embroidered adinkra clothes were made and used exclusively by the then Ghanaian royalty for devotional ceremonies. Each of the motifs that make up the corpus of adinkra symbolism has a name and meaning derived from a proverb, a historical event, human attitude, ethology, plant life-form, or shapes of inanimate and man-made objects. These are graphically rendered in stylised geometric shapes. The meanings of the motifs may be categorised into aesthetics, ethics, human relations, and concepts.
The Adinkra symbols have a decorative function as tattoos but also represent objects that encapsulate evocative messages that convey traditional wisdom, aspects of life or the environment. There are many different symbols with distinct meanings, often linked with proverbs. In the words of Anthony Appiah, they were one of the means in a pre-literate society for “supporting the transmission of a complex and nuanced body of practice and belief”.
Main article: Kente cloth
Along with the Adinkra cloth Ghanaians use many different cloth fabrics for their traditional attire. The different ethnic groups have their own individual cloth. The most well known is the Kente cloth. Kente is a very important Ghanaian national costume and clothing and these cloths are used to make traditional and modern Ghanaian Kente attire.
Different symbols and different colours mean different things. Kente is the most famous of all the Ghanaian cloths. Kente is a ceremonial cloth hand-woven on a horizontal treadle loom and strips measuring about 4 inches wide are sewn together into larger pieces of cloths. Cloths come in various colours, sizes and designs and are worn during very important social and religious occasions.
In a cultural context, kente is more important than just a cloth and it is a visual representation of history and also a form of written language through weaving. The term kente has its roots in the Akan word kɛntɛn which means a basket and the first kente weavers used raffia fibres to weave cloths that looked like kenten (a basket); and thus were referred to as kenten ntoma; meaning basket cloth. The original Akan name of the cloth was nsaduaso or nwontoma, meaning “a cloth hand-woven on a loom”; however, “kente” is the most frequently used term today.
Contemporary Ghanaian men’s fashion with Kente and other traditional styles.
Contemporary Ghanaian women’s fashion with African print/Ankara and other fabrics.
Contemporary Ghanaian fashion include traditional and modern styles and fabrics and has made its way into the African and global fashion scene. The cloth known as African print fabric was created out of Dutch wax textiles, it is believed that in the late 1800s, Dutch ships on their way to Asia stocked with machine-made textiles that mimicked Indonesian Batik stopped at many West African ports on the way. The fabrics did not do well in Asia. However, in West Africa mainly Ghana where there was an already established market for cloths and textiles, the client base grew and it was changed to include local and traditional designs, colors and patterns to cater to the taste of the new consumers. Today outside of Africa it is being called “Ankara” and it has a client base well beyond Ghana and Africa as a whole. It is very popular among Caribbean peoples and African Americans – celebrities such as Solange Knowles and sister Beyoncé have been seen wearing African print attire. Many European and American designers are now using African prints and it has gained a Global interest. European luxury fashion house Burberry created a collection around Ghanaian styles. American musician Gwen Stefani has repeatedly incorporated African prints into her clothing line and can often be seen wearing it. Internationally acclaimed Ghanaian-British designer Ozwald Boateng introduced African print suits in his 2012 collection.
Music and dance
Main articles: Music of Ghana, Azonto, and Kpanlogo
File:Traditional Adowa dance form and music performance.ogvPlay media
Traditional Adowa dance form and music performance.
The music of Ghana is diverse and varies between different ethnic groups and regions. Ghanaian music incorporates several distinct types of musical instruments such as the talking drum ensembles, Akan Drum, goje fiddle and koloko lute, court music, including the Akan Seperewa, the Akan atumpan, the Ga kpanlogo styles, and log xylophones used in asonko music. The most well known genres to have come from Ghana are African jazz which was created by Ghanaian artist Kofi Ghanaba. and its earliest form of secular music is called highlife. Highlife originated in the late 19th century and early 20th century and spread throughout West Africa. In the 1990s a new genre of music was created by the youth incorporating the influences of highlife, Afro-reggae, dancehall and hiphop. This hybrid was called Hiplife. Ghanaian artists such as “Afro Roots” singer, activist and songwriter Rocky Dawuni, R&B and soul singer Rhian Benson and Sarkodie have had international success. In December 2015, Rocky Dawuni became the first Ghanaian musician to be nominated for a Grammy award in the Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album category for his 6th studio album titled Branches of The Same Tree released 31 March 2015.
Ghanaian dance is as diverse as its music, and there are traditional dances and different dances for different occasions. The most known Ghanaian dances are those for celebrations. These dances include the Adowa, Kpanlogo, Azonto, Klama, and Bamaya.
Popular actors of Ghanaian ancestry; Van Vicker, and international actors Boris Kodjoe and Idris Elba.
Ghana has a budding and thriving film industry. Ghana’s film industry dates as far back as 1948 when the Gold Coast Film Unit was set up in the Information Services Department. Some internationally recognised films have come from Ghana. In 1970, I Told You So was one of the first Ghanaian films to receive international acknowledgement and great reviews by The New York Times. It was followed by the 1973 Ghanaian and Italian production The African Deal also known as “Contratto carnale” featuring Bahamian American actor Calvin Lockhart. 1983’s Kukurantumi: the Road to Accra, a Ghanaian and German production directed by King Ampaw was written about by famous American film critic Vincent Canby. In 1987, Cobra Verde another Ghanaian and German production directed by Werner Herzog received international acclamation and in 1988, Heritage Africa won more than 12 film awards.
In recent times there has been some collaboration between Ghanaian and Nigerian crew and cast with a number of productions being turned out. Many Ghanaian films are co-produced with Nollywood, the Nigerian film industry and some are distributed by Nigerian marketers. Also, Nigerian filmmakers usually feature Ghanaian actors and actresses in their movies and Ghanaian filmmakers feature Nigerian actors and actresses in theirs. Nadia Buari, Yvonne Nelson, Lydia Forson and Jackie Appiah all popular Ghanaian actresses and Van Vicker and Majid Michel both popular Ghanaian actors, have starred in many Nigerian movies. As a result of these collaborations, Western viewers oftentimes confused Ghanaian movies with Nollywood and count their sales as one; however, they are two independent industries that sometimes share the colloquial Nollywood. In 2009, Unesco described Nollywood as being the second-biggest film industry in the world after Bollywood.
Main article: Media of Ghana
Ghana mass media, news and information provided by television
The media of Ghana are amongst the most free in Africa. Chapter 12 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana guarantees freedom of the press and independence of the media, while Chapter 2 prohibits censorship. Post-independence, the government and media often had a tense relationship, with private outlets closed during the military governments and strict media laws that prevent criticism of government.
Media freedoms were restored in 1992, and after the election in 2000 of John Agyekum Kufuor the tensions between the private media and government decreased. Kufuor was a supporter of press freedom and repealed a libel law, though maintained that the media had to act responsibly. The Ghanaian media has been described as “one of the most unfettered” in Africa, operating with little restriction on private media. The private press often carries criticism of government policy.
Main article: Sports in Ghana
See also: Ghana at the Winter Olympics and Ghana at the Olympics
Black Stars; Ghana national football team.
Association soccer (or Football) is the most spectated sport in Ghana and the national men’s football team is known as the Black Stars, with the under-20 team known as the Black Satellites. Ghana has won the African Cup of Nations four times, the FIFA U-20 World Cup once, and has participated in three consecutive FIFA World Cups dating back to 2006. In the 2010 FIFA World Cup, Ghana became the third African country to reach the quarter-final stage of the World Cup after Cameroon in 1990 and Senegal in 2002. Ghana national U-20 football team, known as the Black Satellites, is considered to be the feeder team for the Ghana national football team. Ghana is the first and only country on the Africa continent to be crowned FIFA U-20 World Cup Champions, and two-time runners up in 1993 and 2001. The Ghana national U-17 football team known as the Black Starlets are two-time FIFA U-17 World Cup champions in 1991 and 1995, two-time runners up in 1993 and 1997.
Black Stars goal celebration; football is the most popular sport in Ghana.
Ghanaian football teams Asante Kotoko SC and Accra Hearts of Oak SC are the 5th and 9th best football teams on the Africa continent and have won a total of five Africa continental association football and Confederation of African Football trophies; Ghanaian football club Asante Kotoko SC has been crowned two-time CAF Champions League winners in 1970, 1983 and five-time CAF Champions League runners up, and Ghanaian football club Accra Hearts of Oak SC has been crowned 2000 CAF Champions League winner and two-time CAF Champions League runners up, 2001 CAF Super Cup champions and 2004 CAF Confederation Cup champions. The International Federation of Football History and Statistics crowned Asante Kotoko SC as the African club of the 20th century. There are several club football teams in Ghana that play in the Ghana Premier League and Division One League, both administered by the Ghana Football Association.
A part of the Obuasi Golf Course and Golf Club; Golf (Professional Golf) is the national sport of Ashanti and the Ashanti people.
Ghanaian winter sports olympic team at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Winter Olympics.
Ghana competed in the Winter Olympics in 2010 for the first time, Ghana qualified for the 2010 Winter Olympics, scoring 137.5 International Ski Federation points, within the qualifying range of 120–140 points. Ghanaian skier, Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong, nicknamed “The Snow Leopard”, became the first Ghanaian to take part in the Winter Olympics, at the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver, Canada, taking part in the slalom skiing.
Ghana finished 47th out of 102 participating nations, of whom 54 finished in the Alpine skiing slalom. Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong broke on the international skiing circuit, being the second black African skier to do so.
Ghanaian athletes have won a total of four Olympics medals in thirteen appearances at the Summer Olympics, three in boxing, and a bronze medal in association football, and thus became the first country on the Africa continent to win a medal at association football.
The country has also produced quite a few quality boxers, including Azumah Nelson a three-time world champion and considered as Africa’s greatest boxer, Nana Yaw Konadu also a three-time world champion, Ike Quartey, and Joshua Clottey.
Cultural heritage and architecture
See also: Ghana’s material cultural heritage and Ghanaian museums
Ghanaian postmodern architecture and high-tech architecture.
There are two types of Ghanaian traditional construction; The series of adjacent buildings in an enclosure around a common are common and the traditional round huts with grass roof. The round huts with grass roof architecture are situated in the northern regions of Ghana (Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions), while the series of adjacent buildings are in the southern regions of Ghana (Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra and Western regions).
Ghanaian postmodern architecture and high-tech architecture buildings are predominant in the Ghanaian southern regions, while the Ghanaian heritage sites are most evident by the more than thirty forts and castles built in Ghana. Some of these forts are Fort William and Fort Amsterdam. Ghana has museums that are situated inside castles, and two are situated inside a fort. The Military Museum and the National Museum organise temporary exhibitions.
Ghana has museums that show a in-depth look at specific Ghanaian regions, there are a number of museums that provide insight into the traditions and history of their own geographical area in Ghana. The Cape Coast Castle Museum and St. Georges Castle (Elmina Castle) Museum offer guided tours. The Museum of Science and Technology provides its visitors with a look into the domain of Ghanaian scientific development, through exhibits of objects of scientific and technological interest.
The tawny eagle appears on the coat of arms of Ghana
Flag of Ghana
The coat of arms depicts two animals: the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax, a very large bird that lives in the savannas and deserts; 35% of Ghana’s landmass is desert, 35% is forest, 30% is savanna) and the lion (Panthera leo, a big cat); a ceremonial sword, an heraldic castle on an heraldic sea, a cocoa tree and a mine shaft representing the industrial mineral wealth of Ghana, and a five-pointed black star rimmed with gold representing the mineral gold wealth of Ghana and the lodestar of the Ghanaian people. It also has the legend Freedom and Justice.
The flag of Ghana consists of three horizontal bands (strips) of red (top), gold (middle) and green (bottom); the three bands are the same height and width; the middle band bears a five-pointed black star in the centre of the gold band, the colour red band stands for the blood spilled to achieve the nation’s independence: gold stands for Ghana’s industrial mineral wealth, and the color green symbolises the rich tropical rainforests and natural resources of Ghana.
Main article: Tourism in Ghana
Surfers Surfing and Big Wave Surfing at Busua Beach in Western region.
In 2011, 1,087,000 tourists visited Ghana.
Tourist arrivals to Ghana include: South Americans, Asians, Europeans, and North Americans. The attractions and major tourist destinations of Ghana include a warm, tropical climate year-round; diverse wildlife; exotic waterfalls such as Kintampo Waterfalls and the largest waterfall in west Africa, Wli Waterfalls; Ghana’s coastal palm-lined sandy beaches; caves; mountains, rivers; meteorite impact crater and reservoirs and lakes such as Lake Bosumtwi or Bosumtwi meteorite crater and the largest man-made lake in the world by surface area, Lake Volta; dozens of castles and forts; UNESCO World Heritage Sites; nature reserves and national parks.
The World Economic Forum statistics in 2010 showed that out of the world’s favourite tourist destinations, Ghana was ranked 108th out of 139 countries. The country had moved two places up from the 2009 rankings. In 2011, Forbes magazine, published that Ghana was ranked the eleventh most friendly country in the world. The assertion was based on a survey in 2010 of a cross-section of travellers. Of all the African countries that were included in the survey, Ghana ranked highest. Tourism is the fourth highest earner of foreign exchange for the country. In 2015, Ghana ranks as the 54th–most peaceful country in the world.
To enter Ghana, it is necessary to have a visa authorised by the Government of Ghana. Travelers must apply for this visa at a Ghanaian embassy; this process can take approximately two weeks. By law, visitors entering Ghana must be able to produce a yellow fever vaccination certificate.
Panorama view of Kakum National Park, located in the coastal environs of the Central region on the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, covers an area of 375 square kilometres (145 sq mi). Established in 1931 as a Game reserve and Nature reserve, it was gazetted as a national park only in 1992 after an initial survey of avifauna was conducted. The national park is covered with tropical rainforest. Kakum National Park is the only national park in Africa with a canopy walkway, which is 350 metres (1,150 ft) long and connects seven canopy tree tops which provides access to the rainforests.
Tourism Landmarks, National Border, Region and Terrestrial plain of the 4th Republic of Ghana
Coastal Plain Accra, Apam, Cape Coast, Elmina, Kakum National Park, Kokrobite, Nzulezo, Sekondi-Takoradi, Ada Foah The Gulf of Guinea coastal plain with the seat of government and capital city, several castles and forts and the best preserved rainforest in Ghana
Ashanti-Kwahu Koforidua, Kumasi, Obuasi, Sunyani Forested hills and the ancient Kingdom of Ashanti
Volta Basin Tamale massive and world’s largest Lake Volta, the river system that feeds it and Ghana eastern border crossing
Northern Plains Wa, Bolgatanga, Mole National Park Savanna plains and north Ghana trade route and border crossing
Map of Ghana with national border, geographical regions and terrestrial plains colour-coded
Accra Seat of Government and Capital City.
Bolgatanga Paga Crocodile Pond location.
Cape Coast Cape Coast castle is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Elmina Coastal town with a quite harrowing fort Elmina Castle.
Koforidua Aburi Botanical Gardens location.
Kumasi Traditional centre of the Kingdom of Ashanti.
Obuasi The Earth’s 9th largest gold mine location; and Mining town.
Sekondi-Takoradi Ashantiland’s location of renowned surfing beaches such as Busua Beach, and UNESCO World Heritage sites.
Tamale Largest settlement in the Kingdom of Dagbon and gateway to Mole National Park.
Index of Ghana-related articles
Outline of Ghana
Ghana portal Africa portal iconGeography portal
“Emefa.myserver.org”. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
“Welcome”. Government of Ghana. 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013. “The Ghanaian Government states that English is the official language. It is being widely used in business, law, and government documents, as well being taught throughout schools as a medium of instruction. For the official percentage of English language speakers in Ghana see List of countries by English-speaking population”
“Ghana – 2010 Population and Housing Census” (PDF). Government of Ghana. 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“People > Ethnic groups: Countries Compared”. NationMaster. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
“Population projection by sex, 2010 to 2014, National”. Ghana Statistical Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
Antoinette I. Mintah (2010). “2010 Provisional Census Results Out”. 4 February 2011. Population Division, Ghana Government. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
“Ghana”. International Monetary Fund.
“GINI index – World Bank”. World Bank. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
“2015 Human Development Report” (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
Jackson, John G. (2001) Introduction to African Civilizations, Citadel Press, p. 201, ISBN 0-8065-2189-9.
“Asante Kingdom”. Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
Video: A New Nation. Gold Coast becomes Ghana In Ceremony, 1957/03/07 (1957). Universal Newsreel. 1957. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
“First For Sub-Saharan Africa”. BBC. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
“Exploring Africa – Decolinization”. exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
CIA World FactBook. “Ghana”. CIA World FactBook. CIA World FactBook. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
Arie Marcelo, Zones of Peace in the Third World: South America and West Africa, Kacowicz, p. 144.
“Ghana-US relations”. United States Department of State. 13 February 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“Etymology of Ghana”. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
“Ghana: West Africa Discovery”. West Africa Discovery. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“The Legislation Providing for the Grant of Independence to Ghana”. jstor.org.
HC Deb 11 December 1956 vol 562 cc229-326, GHANA INDEPENDENCE BILL, The Under-Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations (Lord John Hope) “First, there is the name “Ghana.” This has been conferred on the new country in accordance with local wishes. It was the name of an ancient kingdom, in what is now French territory south of the Sahara, which has acquired great historic significance in the Gold Coast.”
“Ghana Museums & Monuments Board”. ghanamuseums.org. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
Levtzion, Nehemia (1973). Ancient Ghana and Mali. New York: Methuen & Co Ltd. p. 3. ISBN 0841904316.
Title: Africa a Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson, Language: English Type: Documentary Year: 1984 Length: 114 min.
Dickson, Kwamina B. (1969). A Historical Geography of Ghana. CUP Archive. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-0-521-07102-4.
“Pre-Colonial Period”. Ghanaweb.com. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
“Pre-European Mining at Ashanti, Ghana” (PDF) (PDF). Pdmhs.com. October 1996. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
Tvedten, Ige; Hersoug, Bjørn (1992). Fishing for Development: Small Scale Fisheries in Africa. Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 60–. ISBN 978-91-7106-327-4.
The Techiman-Bono of Ghana: an ethnography of an Akan society Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co., 1975
“A Short History of Ashanti Gold Weights”. Rubens.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
Jessica W (15 November 2011). “Invasion of the Peoples of the North”. GhanaNation. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
Curtis M (19 November 2011). “Ghana Articles: Dagomba”. GhanaNation.com. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
“Dagomba: Background”. BristolDrumming.
“Mamprusi”. Sim.org. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
“History of the Ashanti People”. Modern Ghana. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
“History of Ghana”. TonyX. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
Levy, Patricia; Wong, Winnie (2010). Ghana. Marshall Cavendish. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7614-4847-1.
“History of Ghana”. ghanaweb.com. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
“Bush Praises Strong Leadership of Ghanaian President Kufuor”. iipdigital.usembassy.gov. 15 September 2008. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
MacLean, Iain (2001) Rational Choice and British Politics: An Analysis of Rhetoric and Manipulation from Peel to Blair, p. 76, ISBN 0-19-829529-4.
Puri, Jyoti (2008). Encountering Nationalism. Wiley. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-470-77672-8.
Chronology of world history: a calendar of principal events from 3000 BC to AD 1973, Part 1973, Rowman & Littlefield, 1975, ISBN 0-87471-765-5.
Ashanti Kingdom, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009, Archived 31 October 2009.
Gocking, Roger (2005). The History of Ghana. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 92–. ISBN 978-0-313-31894-8.
“Ghana flag and description”. worldatlas.com. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
“Ghana Flag”. Ghanaweb.com. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
“Of Nkrumah’s Political Ideologies: Communism, Socialism, Nkrumaism”. Ghana Web. 20 September 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
“When it was made a Holiday”. Modern Ghana. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
“The political and social thought of Kwame Nkrumah” (PDF). Libyadiary. 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
“Ghana: Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings (J.J Rawlings)”. Africa Confidential. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“Rawlings: The legacy”. BBC News. 1 December 2000. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“Elections in Ghana”. Africanelections.tripod.com. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
Kokutse, Francis (3 January 2009). “Opposition leader wins presidency in Ghana”. USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
“Atta Mills dies”. The New York Times. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
“Ghanaian President John Dramani Mahama sworn in”. Sina Corp. 7 January 2013.
“Ghana: Geography Physical”. photius.com. Retrieved 24 June 2013., “Ghana: Location and Size”. photius.com. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
“Ghana – Weather Averages”. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“Ghana low plains”. photius.com. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
“Government and Politics”. A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Lcweb2.loc.gov.
“Foreignpolicy.com – Failed States List 2012”. 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“Corruption Perceptions Index 2012”. Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
Agyeman-Duah, Baffour. “Curbing Corruption and Improving Economic Governance: The Case of Ghana” (PDF). Ghana Center for Democratic Development. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“Mo Ibrahim Foundation – 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG)”. Moibrahimfoundation.org. 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“Official page of Nations Permanent Mission of Ghana to the United Nations”. United Nations. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
“Hu Jintao Holds Talks with President of Ghana Mills”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
Deng, Shasha (12 November 2011). “Visiting senior Chinese official lauds Ghana for political stability, national unity”. Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
“Ahmadinejad: Iran’s populist and pariah leaves the stage”. BBC News. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“Iranian leader Ahmadinejad’s West Africa tour defended”. BBC News. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“CPP welcomes President Ahmadinejad visit to Ghana”. Ghana News Agency. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“Ghana welcomed Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad”. iafrica.tv. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad To Visit Ghana”. Government of Ghana. 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“Iran welcomes expansion of trade ties with Ghana: Vice president”. Press TV. 5 August 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“The Ghana Police Service”. mint.gov.gh. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“Ghana Police Service sets up Marine Police Unit”. modernghana.com. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
“Police Administration”. ghanapolice.info. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
“Ghana Prisons Service General Information”. ghanaprisons.gov.gh. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
“Ghana – Death Penalty”. handsoffcain.info. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
“Ghana Criminal Code and Courts”. country-data.com. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
“Ghana Prisons Service Inmate Statistics”. ghanaprisons.gov.gh. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
Perriello. “Promoting Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions in the Great Lakes”. DIPNote. US Department of state. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
“Ghana hit by illegal drug trade”. Gulf News. 28 September 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
Gerra. “Illegal drug use on the rise in Africa”. DW Made for minds. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
“Ghana could be taken over by drug barons if”. myjoyonline.com. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
Kilford, Christopher R. (2010), The Other Cold War: Canada’s Military Assistance to the Developing World 1945–75, Kingston, Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press, p. 138, ISBN 1-100-14338-6.
Baynham, Simon (1988), The Military and Politics in Nkumrah’s Ghana, Westview, Chapter 4, ISBN 0-8133-7063-9.
“Defence”. Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“Ghana’s Regional Security Policy: Costs, Benefits and Consistency” (PDF). Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre. p. 33. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“KAIPTC”. Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“Vision and Mission of the Ministry of Defence (MoD)”. gaf.mil.gh. Ghana Armed Forces. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“Research Reactors”. World Nuclear Association. March 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
Graham T. Allison (9 December 2003). “We’re still vulnerable”. Boston Globe. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“SOCIAL:EC has done no wrong – Dr Afari-Gyan”. Ghana News Agengy. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
“MPs demand 24/7 police security for 275 members”. myjoyonline.com. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
All Districts. ghanadistricts.com
“Is Ghana the next African economic tiger”. standardmedia.co.ke. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
“BoG introduce Chinese Yuan onto the FX market”. Bank of Ghana. 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
“Ghana – Gross Domestic Product” (PDF). statsghana.gov.gh. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
“A new era of transformation in Ghana” (PDF). ifpri.org. Retrieved 16 February 2012.:12
“New fuel for faster development”. worldfolio.co.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
“Ghana Market Update” (PDF). Intercontinental Bank. Retrieved 26 March 2012.:13
“Top-Performing African Stock Markets in 2013”. africastrictlybusiness.com. 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
“Is Ghana Entering A Sweet, Golden Era?”. African Business. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
Jedwab, Rémi; Moradi, Alexander (2012). “Revolutionizing Transport: Modern Infrastructure, Agriculture and Development in Ghana”. London School of Economics. Retrieved 15 June 2013. “Two railway lines were built between 1901 and 1923 to connect the coast to mining areas and the large hinterland city of Kumasi. This unintendedly opened vast expanses of tropical forest to cocoa cultivation, allowing Ghana to become the world’s largest producer.”
“Ghana will reclaim top spot in cocoa production -Prez Mahama”. Daily Graphic. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
Forrest, Paul (September 2011). Ghana Market Update (PDF). icbuk.com. Intercontinental Bank. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
“Ghana’s Jubilee oil field nears output plateau -operator”. Reuters. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
“The Top 5 Countries for ICT4D in Africa”. ictworks.org. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
“Five Countries to Watch”. individual.troweprice.com. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
“ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!”. Aluworks.com. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
Clark, Nancy L. “Petroleum Exploration”. A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Lcweb2.loc.gov.
“Ghana leader: Oil reserves at 3B barrels”. Yahoo News. 22 December 2007. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
McLure, Jason. Ghana Oil Reserves to Be 5 billion barrels (790,000,000 m3) in 5 years as fields develop. Bloomberg Television. Wednesday, 1 December 2010.
“Atuabo gas project to propel more growth”. Daily Graphic. 13 May 2013. Archived from the original on 16 May 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
“Ghana: Why Privatise Ghana Oil?”. allafrica.com. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
Brown, Dave (15 November 2010). “Top 10 Gold Producers”. Gold Investing News. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
Said, Sammy (15 June 2013). “Top 10 Countries with the Most Diamonds Found”. therichest.com. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
Ghana Mineral and Mining Sector Investment and Business Guide. Ibpus.com. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
Ghana Mineral and Mining Sector Investment and Business Guide. Ibpus.com. International Business Publications. 2007. ISBN 978-1-4330-1775-9. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
“Ghana Minerals and Mining Act”. ghanalegal.com. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
“Economic Update – Ghana: Private opportunities in real estate”. oxfordbusinessgroup.com. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
“Real Estate Market in Ghana”. orelghana.com. 23 July 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
“Property market faces brighter growth prospects”. ghanabizmedia.com. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
“IE S’pore opens second Africa office in Ghana”. business.asiaone.com. AsiaOne. 27 July 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
Annex 1: Political and Administrative System. World Bank. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
“Republic of Ghana Country Strategy Paper 2012–2016” (PDF). afdb.org. Retrieved 31 May 2013.:12–40
Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority: Port of Takoradi. ghanaports.gov.gh. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority: Port of Tema. ghanaports.gov.gh. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
“I’ve been named ‘Mr Dumsor’ in Ghana – Prez Mahama tells Ghanaians in Germany – See more at:”. Graphic Online. Graphic Communications Group Limited (G.C.G.L). 21 January 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
Agbenyega, E. (10 April 2014). “Ghana’s power crisis: What about renewable energy?”. graphic.com.gh. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
Reuters Editorial (2013-04-23). “Ghana’s Jubilee oil field nears output plateau -operator”. Reuters. Retrieved 2015-05-30.
“Corruption Perceptions Index 2013”. Transparency International. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
“Ghana Loses $4b Annually To Corruption”. businessguideghana.com. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
“Impeach Mahama over GYEEDA, SUBAH scandals – Group”. vibeghana.com. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
“Mahama more committed to fighting corruption than any past president – Apaak”. My Joy Online. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
“Mahama committed to fighting corruption – Mornah”. GhanaWeb. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
“Mahama Fighting Corruption? NO ACTION ON ¢8BN MAPUTO SCANDAL -Over Three Years After Damning Report of malfeasance”. New Statesman. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
“Science & Technology”. Ghanaweb. 24 June 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
“Ghana’s John Mahama launches Hope City project”. BBC News BBC News. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
“An IT university will be built at HOPE CITY”. VIVA Africa Multimedia. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
“Africa’s journey to space begins on the ground”. United Kingdom: BBC News. 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
“Ghana’s Home-Grown Space Program Takes Off”. United States: Voice of America. 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
Ghana’s Home-Grown Space Program Takes Off, United States: Voice of America, 2013, retrieved 24 June 2013
K. D. MEREKU, I. Yidana, W. H. K. HORDZI, I. Tete-Mensah; Williams, J. B. (2009). Pedagogical Integration of ICT: Ghana Report. 
“The Cyber Index – International Security Trends and Realities” (PDF). unidir.org. 2013. pp. 63–64. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
“Cyber crime: Ghana 2nd in Africa, 7th in the world”. edition.myjoyonline.com. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
“Basic Education Curriculum”. Ghana Education Service. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“Basic curriculum Education: The junior High Education”. Ghana Education Service. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
West African Examinations Council(corporate site: Ghana). “BECE”. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
NUFFIC 2013, p. 7.
“Vocational Education in Ghana”. UNESCO-UNEVOC. July 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
NUFFIC 2013, p. 9.
Atuahene, Ansah 2013, p. 2.
“A Brief History of the Ghanaian Educational System”. TobeWorldwide.org. Archived from the original on 2011-08-09.
NUFFIC 2013, pp. 4–5.
NUFFIC 2013, pp. 5.
“UNICEF – Basic Education and Gender Equality” (PDF). unicef.org. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
“This page is available to GlobePlus subscribers”. The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
“Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%)”. World Bank. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
“Plight of Foreign Students in Ghana”. modernghana.com. 2 November 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
Nyarota, Geoffrey; Against the Grain; pp. 101–102.
“Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15–24)”. World Bank. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
“Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15–24)”. World Bank. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
“Ghana Lauded for Free Primary School Program”. Voice of America. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
Education in Ghana. ghanaweb.com
Country module Ghana at the Wayback Machine (archived 5 June 2012). nuffic.nl. What to know about the National Accreditation Board (NAB). NAB.gov.gh. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
“Le français, enjeu du XXI Sisécle (french)” (PDF). francophonie.org. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
Ghana public universities. nab.gov.gh. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
Ghana private tertiary institutions offering degree program. nab.gov.gh. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
“NYU Accra”. NYU. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
“University of Ghana”. Ug.edu.gh. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
“Ghana Embassy – Population”. Ghana Embassy. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
“Ghana Demographics Profile 2013”. Indexmundi. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
“General Information – Key Figures”. GhanaWeb. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
“Islam in Ghana – Report”. Retrieved 12 August 2013., “2010 Population and Housing Census” (PDF). Retrieved 12 August 2013.
“The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity” (PDF). Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
“Ghana – population”. Library of Congress Country Studies.
“Ghana Owes no Apology to Anybody for Aliens Compliance Order”. vibeghana.com. 14 April 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
“The History of Ghana’s 1969 Aliens Compliance Order”. davidson.edu. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
“Ghana deports thousands of illegal Chinese miners”. Mail & Guardian. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
“Ghana deports thousands in crackdown on illegal Chinese goldminers”. The Guardian. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
“The Bureau of Ghana Languages-BGL”. National Commission on Culture. 2006. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
“Study of Ghanaian Languages”. africa.upenn.edu. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
“Religion statistics by Country”. religionfacts.com.
“Ghana”. The World Factbook.
“2010 Population & Housing Census” (PDF). statsghana.gov.gh. 2010.
UNICEF 2013, p. 27.
Legislation To Address The Issue of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
“National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)”. nhis.gov.gh. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“Ghana: National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)”. jointlearningnetwork.org. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“Medical tourism is emerging market for Ghana”. eturbonews.com. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
Field Listing :: Life expectancy at birth. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
Field Listing :: Infant mortality rate.cia.gov. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
“Afro.who.int” (PDF). Afro.who.int. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
Field Listing :: Health expenditures. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
“These are the countries where I’m the least known” – Bill Gates visits Ghana”. thejournal.ie. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
Oumou Bah (22 October 2011). “Ghanaian cuisine, dokonu, banku, okra and soup”. kadirecipes.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
“Ghana”. Amadeus (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 August 2013.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony (1993). In my father’s house : Africa in the philosophy of culture (1.paperbackedition 1993. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-506852-8.
“Ghanaian Kente Cloth”. kentecloth.net. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“The Story Behind African Wax Print Cloth”. Thewrendesign.com. 10 July 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
“Beyonce vs. Solange: Which Sister Wears Bold Prints Best”. Fashionmagazine.com. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
“African-Inspired Spring 2012 Collections Takes Over LFW & NYFW”. munaluchibridal.com. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
“African Style Goes Global, Despite Little Tangible Support From African Leaders”. The New York Times. 26 May 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
“Design: Gwen Stefani’s L.A.M.B Spring 2011 Collection”. Okayafrica.com. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
“African Icons Show at NYFW: Ozwald Boateng”. Africanprintinfashion.com. 10 September 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
“Ghana: From Highlife to Hiplife”. worldmusic.net. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“Ghana: Kofi Ghanaba – Influential Drummer Who Emphasised the African Origins of Jazz”. Ghanaian Chronicle. 12 February 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
“Rhian Benson’s global soul sound”. CNN. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“Sarkodie”. ghanacelebrities.com. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“Branches of the Same Tree album”. iTunes. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
“Dance, Ghana” (PDF). Temple. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“Gold Coast Film Unit”. Colonialfilm.org.uk. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
I Told You So at the Internet Movie Database
“The African Deal (1973)”. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
“Kukurantumi The Road To Accra (1983)”. The New York Times. 1 April 1984. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
Clayton, Jonathan (3 April 2010). “Nollywood success puts Nigeria’s film industry in regional spotlight”. The Times. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
Constitution of Ghana at the Wayback Machine (archived 24 March 2008), Government of Ghana.
Anokwa, K. (1997). In Press Freedom and Communication in Africa. Erbio, F. & Jong-Ebot, W. (Eds.) Africa World Press. ISBN 978-0-86543-551-3.
Basic Data. pressreference.com
BBC Country Profile: Ghana, BBC News.
“Ghana thrilled by historic title”. BBC. 17 October 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“USA 1–2 Ghana (aet)”. BBC. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
“World Championship for U-16/U-17 Teams”. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“Africa’s club of the Century”. IFFHS official website. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
“Premier League”. ghanafa.org. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“Base Camp Sponsored Ghanaian skier Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong has qualified for 2010 Olympics”. 0–21 Snowboarding. 13 March 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
Dutta, Kunal (22 October 2009). “Forget Eric the Eel… meet the Snow Leopard”. The Independent. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
“Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong, Alpine Skiing”. Vancouver, 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
Men’s Slalom – Run 2, Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games official website. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
“Men’s Slalom”. Vancouver, 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
Chris Wilson (3 February 2010). “Ghana’s first winter Olympian gears up for Vancouver Games”. Daily Mirror. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
“Ghana clinging to Olympic dream”. BBC News. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
Errol Barnett (10 August 2012). “Is Azumah Nelson Africa’s greatest boxer?”. CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“Top 5 Ghanaian Boxers”. proboxing-fans.com. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
“Culture, Art and Architecture: Ghana”. Countriesquest. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“Ghana Museums and Monuments Board”. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
“Ghana National Emblems”. ghanaembassy.be. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
Tamara Hinson (28 August 2014). “11 of the world’s most unusual surf spots”. edition.cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
“We Are Serious About Overcoming The Challenges Confronting Tourism Development”. Ministry of Tourism Ghana. ghana.gov.gh. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
“Trade Expo International Ghana”. uniquetrustex.com. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
“Forbes: Ghana is eleventh friendliest nation”. vibeghana.com. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
“About the Global Peace Index” (PDF). Vision of Humanity. 2015.
“Travel Advice”. Africa.com. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
“Parks and reserves of Ghana: Management Effectiveness Assessment of Protected Areas” (PDF). IUCN Organization. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
“Kakum National Park (Assin Attandanso Reserve) (#)”. UNESCO Organization. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
“Kakum National Park”. Microsfere Organization. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
“Kakum National Park – Assin Attandaso Resource Reserve”. Bird Life organization. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
Arhin, Kwame, The Life and Work of Kwame Nkrumah (Africa Research & Publications, 1995)
Babatope, Ebenezer, The Ghana Revolution: From Nkrumah to Jerry Rawlings (Fourth Dimension Publishing, 1982)
Birmingham, David, Kwame Nkrumah: Father Of African Nationalism (Ohio University Press, 1998)
Boafo-Arthur, Kwame, Ghana: One Decade of the Liberal State (Zed Books Ltd, 2007)
Briggs, Philip, Ghana (Bradt Travel Guide) (Bradt Travel Guides, 2010)
Clark, Gracia, African Market Women: Seven Life Stories from Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2010)
Davidson, Basil, Black Star: A View of the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah (James Currey, 2007)
Falola, Toyin and Salm, Stephen J, Culture and Customs of Ghana (Greenwood, 2002)
Grant, Richard, Globalizing City: The Urban and Economic Transformation of Accra, Ghana (Syracuse University Press, 2008)
Hadjor, Kofi Buenor, Nkrumah and Ghana (Africa Research & Publications, 2003)
Hasty, Jennifer, The Press and Political Culture in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
James, C.L.R., Kwame Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution (Allison & Busby, 1977)
Kuada, John and Chachah Yao, Ghana. Understanding the People and their Culture (Woeli Publishing Services, 1999)
Miescher, Stephan F, Making Men in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
Milne, June, Kwame Nkrumah, A Biography (Panaf Books, 2006)
Nkrumah, Kwame, Ghana : The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (International Publishers, 1971)
Utley, Ian, Ghana – Culture Smart!: the essential guide to customs & culture (Kuperard, 2009)
Various, Ghana: An African Portrait Revisited (Peter E. Randall Publisher, 2007)
Younge, Paschal Yao, Music and Dance Traditions of Ghana: History, Performance and Teaching (Mcfarland & Co Inc., 2011)
Laura Burke; Armando García Schmidt (2013). “Ghana: Staying on Track in a Challenging Environment”, in: Bertelsmann Stiftung (ed.): Winning Strategies for a Sustainable Future. Reinhard Mohn Prize 2013. Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh. pp. 127–147. ISBN 978-3-86793-491-6. External link in |title= (help)
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ghana
Ghana official website
The Parliament of Ghana official site
National Commission on Culture official site
Country Profile from BBC News
Ghana from Encyclopaedia Britannica
Ghana from UCB Libraries GovPubs
“Ghana”. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Ghana profile from Africa.com
Ghana at DMOZ
Wikimedia Atlas of Ghana
The African Activist Archive Project website has photographs of the All Africa People’s Conference held in Accra, Ghana, 5–13 December 1958 including Kwame Nkrumah, Prime Minister of Ghana, addressing the conference, the American Committee on Africa delegation meeting with Nkrumah, and of Patrick Duncan and Alfred Hutchinson of South Africa at the conference.
Key Development Forecasts for Ghana from International Futures
Ghana 2012 Summary Trade Statistics
v t e
Ghana Years in Ghana (1950s–present)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Coat of arms of Ghana
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s
v t e
Ghana Ghana governments
Nkrumah government Busia government Limann government Rawlings government Kufuor government Mills government Mahama government
National Liberation Council National Redemption Council Supreme Military Council Armed Forces Revolutionary Council Provisional National Defence Council
Articles relating to Ghana
Find out more on Wikipedia’s
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144165561 LCCN: n80061117 GND: 2012609-8 BNF: cb11950750c (data) NDL: 00562221
GhanaCommonwealth republicsCountries in AfricaEconomic Community of West African StatesEnglish-speaking countries and territoriesLiberal democraciesMember states of the African UnionMember states of the Commonwealth of NationsMember states of the United NationsRepublicsStates and territories established in 1957West African countries1957 establishments in Ghana
Not logged in
Donate to Wikipedia
What links here
Cite this page
Create a book
Download as PDF
In other projects
Norfuk / Pitkern
Sesotho sa Leboa
Српски / srpski
Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche
This page was last modified on 23 August 2016, at 11:26.